Thursday, 14 November 2013

Vedic time system

 taken from

http://veda.wikidot.com/vedic-time-system

Yuga

The units of time larger than a year are called yugas. The word yuga has been derived from yoga and yoga from samyoga, or conjunction of heavenly bodies. So one finds the origin of every unit of yuga to a specific conjunction of the heavenly bodies in the sky. In Indian astronomy, starting from a mere 5 year yuga to a vast Mahāyuga of 4,320,000 years are in vogue. Every 5 year, a conjunction of the sun and the moon occurs at the asterism Dhanişthā in the zodiacal sign Makara (Capricorn). The sun enters Makara, in the month of Māgha. Hence the conjunction recurs every 5 year on the new-moon day in the month of Māgha and that is the basis of counting a 5 year yuga. The Vedānga Jyotisa provides special names for these five years and they are Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvatsara. Anuvatsara and Idvatvatsara [VS: 26/45, 30/16; TB: 1/4/10;111/4/1-4).
The planet Vŗhaspati (Jupiter) takes 1 year to cover a zodiacal sign and hence takes 12 years to complete its journey through all the 12 signs of the zodiac. This is the basis for counting a 12 year yuga and since it originates from the motion of Vŗhaspati, it is often called the Vrāhaspatya-yuga. It would be relevant to mention here that the Kumbha-Mela is held when Vŗhaspati enters the house of Kumbha (Aquarious) and hence the festival recurs every 12 years.
From the facts narrated above, one observes that a conjunction of the sun and the moon at Dhanişthā, while the Vŗhaspati (Jupiter) at makara (Capricorn), occurs every 60 years and that is the basis for counting a 60 year yuga. Hindu scriptures provide separate names for all the sixty years of a 60 year yuga.[4] The rare occasion when the sun, the moon and Vŗhaspati (Jupiter) meet at dhanişthā repeats at an interval of 865 million years. Such a conjunction occurs five times in a Kalpa.

Mahayuga (Chaturyuga) — The Yuga Cycles

Beyond this level there are 4 epochs or yugas, namely, Krita Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dvapara Yuga, and Kali Yuga. All these four yugas together is called a chatur yuga, which means "four epochs"or also termed maha yuga that means "great epochs". Together a chatur yuga constitutes 4,320,000 human years and the lengths of each chatur yuga follow a ratio of (4:3:2:1:).
yuga human years ratio
krita-yuga 1,728,000 years 4
treta-yuga 1,296,000 years 3
dvapara-yuga 864,000 years 2
kali-yuga 432,000 years 1
1 chatur yuga (mahayuga) 4,320,000 human years
The ages see a gradual decline of dharma, wisdom, knowledge, intellectual capability, life span and emotional and physical strength.
Krita Yuga Treta Yuga Dvapara Yuga Kali Yuga
other name Golden Age or Satya Yuga (age of Truth) Silver Age Bronze Age Iron Age
human years 1,728,000 1,296,000 864,000 432,000
climate virtue reigns supreme three quarters virtue and one quarter sin one half virtue and one half sin one quarter virtue and three quarters sin
human stature 21 cubits 14 cubits
3.5 cubits
human lifespan lakh of years and death occurs only when willed. lifespan is 10,000 years. lifespan is 1,000 years. lifespan is 100 or 120 years.

Time of the Devas — The Cosmic Years

1 day of the Devas 1 human year
1 month of the Devas 30 days of the Devas
1 year of the Devas (1 divine year) 12 months of the Devas
The lifespan of the Devas is 100 years of the Devas (= 36,000 human years).

Kalpa — A Cosmic Day of Brahmā

In this cyclic process of time, 1000 chaturyuga or mahayuga period is called a Kalpa, and period of time is equal to a daytime for the Brahma, the creator of the universe. A thousand and a thousand (i.e. two thousand) chaturyuga-s are said to be one day and night of Brahmā (the creator).
1 kalpa 1000 chatur yuga (mahayuga)
1 day and 1 night of Brahmā 2 kalpas
At the beginning of creation begins the day of creation. At the end of that goes back all of the creation of the Absolute. This is a Kalpa a cosmic cycle of becoming and either of creation and destruction.

Manvantara

A cosmic days includes 14 Period or Manvantaras to 306 720 000 solar years. The next day, a cosmic unity is a Manvantara, there are fourteen pieces. A Manu mastered such a period. We live in the 7th Manvantara. Manvantara the first 6 have gone, 7 more will come. In particular, their names are:
01. Svaayambhuva — son of the self-born (here began the creation)
02. Svaarochisha — son of the Self Shining
03. Uttama — Son of the Most High
04. Taamasa — Son of Darkness
05. Raivata — son of wealth
06. Chaakshusha — son of the vision (this was the Quirlung instead of the milk ocean)
07. Vaivasvata — Vaivasvata is the son of the Sun God. <—- We currently live here.
08. Arka Saavarni (or Savarnika) — stands with the Sun God in relationship
09. Daksha-Saavarni — son of the rituals
10. Brahma-Saavarni — son of Brahma
11. Dharma-Saavarni — Son of the Eternal Law
12. Rudra-Saavarni — son of the Destroyer
13. Deva-Saavarni — Son of the Shining
14. Indra-Saavarni — son of the mighty Indra
71 cycles of chatur yuga is called a manvantara. At the end of each manvantara period, there comes a partial devastation period, which is equivalant to the duration of krita yuga. This means after every manvantara period, the world is partially destroyed and recreated.
1 manvantara 71 cycles of chatur yuga
A Manvantara is one of the 14 sub-units of a cosmic creation and lasts for 710 days or 306 720 000 solar years. 306 720 000 years. A Manvantara is divided into a total of 71 Mahayugas ( "big Yugas"). Currently, we live the 28th Mahayuga. Mahayuga of the 7th Manvantara. The Mahayugas close to each other seamlessly, without having a period of twilight to be separated.

Mahakalpa — Brahma's Lifespan

Brahma (the creator) lives for 100 years of 360 such days and at the end, he is said to dissolve, along with his entire Creation, into the Paramātman (Eternal Soul). The scriptures put Brahma's age at 100 years in his unique time scale.
Brahma's life span is equal to 311,040,000,000,000 human years. This period in named as maha kalpa. A universe lasts only for one maha kalpa period. At the end of it the universe is completely destroyed together with the creator Brahma and a new universe would be created with a new Brahma. This cycle goes on endlessly. The Vedic universe passes through repetitive cycles of creation and destruction. During the annihilation of the universe, energy is conserved, to manifest again in the next creation.
1 maha kalpa 100 years of Brahma (311,040,000,000,000 human years)

Present date in Time

How old is the universe on this day of Brahma?
The current Kali Yuga began after the Surya Siddhanta at midnight on a change of 17 at 18 February in the year 3102 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar. Since the beginning of the Kalpa until the year 2005 AD passed:
  • 6 complete Manvantaras: 6 x 710
  • 7-Manvantara twilight before a Manvantara each: 7 x 4
  • 27 complete Mahayugas of the current 7th Manvantara: 27 x 10
  • 3 Elapsed Yugas the current 28th Mahayuga: (4 + 3 + 2) x l
  • 5107 solar years in the current Kali Yuga

Kaliyuga calendar

The Kaliyuga calendar is apparently much older than — and quite out of line with — the other surviving old calendars. It also has a somewhat special standing because of its linkage with the religious account of the history of the world, described with mathematical — if mind-boggling — precision. (It is the last and the shortest of the four yugas, meant to last for 432,000 years, and has been preceded respectively by three other yugas, which were in length — going backwards — two, three and four times as long as the Kaliyuga, making up a total of 4,320,000 years altogether.)
The epoch (starting point or first day of the zeroth year) of the current era of Hindu calendar (both solar and lunisolar) is February 18 3102 BC/BCE in the proleptic Julian calendar or January 23 3102 BC/BCE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. Both the solar and lunisolar calendars started on this date. After that, each year is labeled by the number of years elapsed since the epoch.
This is a unique feature of the Hindu calendar. All other systems use the current ordinal number of the year as the year label. But just as a person's true age is measured by the number of years that have elapsed starting from the date of the person's birth, the Hindu calendar measures the number of years elapsed. As of May 18, 2005, 5106 years had elapsed in the Hindu calendar, so this is the 5107th Hindu calendar year. Note that the lunisolar calendar year will usually start earlier than the solar calendar year.

Outline

Prior to the creation of the universe, Lord Vishnu lies asleep on the ocean of all causes. He rests upon a serpent bed with thousands of cobra-like hoods. While asleep, a lotus sprouts from His navel. Upon this lotus is born Brahma the creator of the universe. Lord Brahma lives for a hundred years and then dies, while Lord Vishnu remains. One year of Brahma consists of three hundred and sixty days. At the beginning of each day Brahma creates the living beings that reside in the universe and at the end of each day the living beings are absorbed into Brahma while he sleeps on the lotus. On day of Brahma is known as a KALPA. Within each KALPA there are fourteen MANUS and within each MANU are seventy one CHATUR-YUGAS. Each CHATUR-YUGA is divided into four parts called YUGAPADAS.
From the first chapter of Surya-Siddhanta, the most revered authoritative source of Hindu astronomy, we have the following passage:
11. That which begins with respirations (prana) is called real…….Six respirations make a vinadi, sixty of these a nadi:
12. And sixty nadis make a sidereal day and night. Of thirty of these sidereal days is composed a month; a civil (savana) month consists of as many sunrises;
13. A lunar month, of as many lunar days (tithi); a solar (saura) month is determined by the entrance of the Sun into a sign of the zodiac; twelve months make a year. This is called a day of the gods.
14. The day and night of the devas are mutually opposed to one another. Six times sixty of them are a year of the devas.
15 & 16. Twelve thousand of these divine years are denominated a chatur-yuga; of ten-thousand times four hundred and thirty two solar years is composed that chatur-yuga, with its dawn and twilight. The difference of the krita-yuga and the other yugas, as measured by the difference in the number of the feet of virtue in each is as follows:
17. The tenth part of a chatur-yuga, multiplied successively by four, three, two, and one, gives the length of the krita and the other yugas: the sixth part of each belongs to its dawn and twilight.
18. One and seventy chatur-yugas make a manu; at its end is a twilight which has the number of years of a krita-yuga, and which is a deluge.
19. In a kalpa are reckoned fourteen manus with their respective twilights; at the commencement of the kalpa is a fifteenth dawn, having the length of a krita-yuga.
20. The kalpa, thus composed of a thousand chatur-yugas, and which brings about the destruction of all that exists, is a day of Brahma; his night is of the same length.
21. His extreme age is a hundred, according to this valuation of a day and a night. The half of his life is past; of the remainder, this is the firsts kalpa.
22. And of this kalpa, six manus are past, with their respective twilights; and of the Manu son of Vivasvat, twenty seven chatur-yugas are past;
23. Of the present, the twenty eighth chatur-yuga, this krita yuga is past……..

Pralaya

ALL THE BEINGS OF THIS UNIVERSE INCLUDING CHATURMUKHA BRAHMA AND OTHER GODS ARE RULED BY TIME. THEY ARE CREATED, LIVE AND ARE DESTROYED BY ONE SUPREME AND POWERFUL BEING , WHO HAS NO BIRTH OR DEATH.
This destruction is of four types:
(1) Nitya Pralaya (2) Naimittika Pralaya (3) Maha Pralaya and (4) Aatyantika Pralaya.
Nitya Pralaya is the sleep or by an extension thereof, Death.
Naimittika Pralaya is the end of a single day of Brahma, when the three worlds (Bhuh:, Bhuvaha: and Suvaha:) disintegrate.
Maha Pralaya is the great deluge at the end of the age of one Brahma ,which consists of 100 Brahmic Years (365 Times 2,000 ChaturYugas).
Aatyantika Pralaya is "the final deliverance or the attainment of Salvation by a Jivan and after that the Jivan is never again in the clutches of Karma nor bound by the tight ropes of Samsara.It is therefore a variable time span conditioned by the practise of the different kind of Yogas or Prapatti.
After these definitions of Units of Kaala and the alloted life spans of the Humans and Gods, we come to the concept of Kaala in the Nitya Vibuthi or Sri Vaikuntam. Since, Kaala is omnipresent, it has to be in Sri Vaikuntam also. However, it does not have the same power as in Leela Vibuthi or the Physical Universe, which serves as the play ground for Sriman Narayana. Kaala in Sri Vaikuntam is powerless and hence does not bring about growth, decay or destruction of any thing. Hence all there have eternal existence. Kaala is helpful there only "to describe one action as taking place before or after another. For instance in the service that the Muktas do to Sriman Narayana , they give a bath (Snana) at a point of time previous to that in which they offer food(Bhojana). It is all day there for ever and there is no division into day and night. Kaala is under the control of Sriman Narayana and he manipulates it as He likes it. It is used as an Instrument by Him in bringing about the modification of the various objects in Lila Vibhuti."

Tuesday, 12 November 2013

TIME AND SPACE

TIME AND SPACE
The purpose of the description is to emphasize the rarity of attaining the association of God and His saint and influence one to commit his life to devotion rather than worldly matters. If a human birth does not occur in an auspicious place where there is the presence of saints and incarnations of God, one must suffer the cycle of birth and death for 8.4 million lives before attaining a human birth again (Hindu scriptures describe 8.4 million different life forms). This is intended to highlight the extreme importance of this very place and moment in which God and His saint have been met.

Liberated entities in Akshardham are beyond maya, and so, beyond kaal or time.
In Swami Ni Vato chapter 6, number 18 Gunatitanand Swami explains:
1 day of [Mul]Prakruti-[Mul]Purush (or MahaMaya-MahaPurush) = 100 years of Pradhan-Purush
1 day of Pradhan-Purush = 100 years of ViratNarayan (or ViratPurush = Brahma)

The Shrimad Bhagavat gives descriptions of space and time as experienced by sages in meditation. Lord Swaminarayan discusses this in the 'Bhugol-khagol' letter, which is given at the end of the Vachanamrut and Harililamrut, kalash (chapter) 6, vishraam (section) 11, verse 12 onwards. Time is described relative to Brahma's life:

Brahma's TimeHuman YearsAge of Brahma/brahmaand
1 life is divided into 100 years

1 paraardh = 50 years

At the end of Brahma's 100-year life, there is praakrut-pralay

51st year
1 year of Brahma is made up of 360 days (12-hours) and nights (12-hours)
1st day
1 day (12-hours) of Brahma, called 1 kalp, contains 14 periods called manvantar, with a period equal to 4-yug before and after each manvantar

At the end of Brahma's day (12-hours) there is nimit-pralay
4.32 billion
= 14 x 306,720,000
+ 15 x 1,728,000
7th manvantar
1 manvantar is divided into 71 maha-yug or chokdi 306,720,000
= 71 x 4,320,000
28th maha-yug
1 maha-yug is sequentially made up of satya-yug, treta-yug, dvaapar-yug, and kali-yug

1 satya-yug is 4 times 1 yug,
1 treta-yug is 3 times 1 yug,
1 dvaapar-yug is 2 times 1 yug, and
1 kali-yug is equal to 1 yug
4,320,000
= 10 x 432,000

1,728,000 = 4 x 432,000
1,296,000 = 3 x 432,000
864,000 = 2 x 432,000
432,000 = 1 x 432,000
Kali-yug

Lord Rama incarnated in treta-yug in Surya-vansh (lineage of Surya-deva). Lord Krishna incarnated at the end of dvaapar-yug in Chandra-vansh (lineage of Chandra-deva)
1 yug 432,000 We are about 5,000 years into kali-yug (kali-yug started around 3102 BC)

Lord Swaminarayan incarnated in 1781 AD

1 day (12-hours) = 30 ghadi
1 ghadi (24-minutes) = 60 pal
1 pal (24-seconds) = 60 nimish
1 nimish (2/5-second) = 60 lav
1 lav = 1/150 second

14 manus

Six entities are associated with a manvantar: (1) manu or the head and progenitor of humans, (2) indra or the king of the demigods, (3) devataas or demigods, (4) manu's children, (5) saptarshi or seven main rushis (sages), and (6) ansh-avatars or incarnations / 'part' of God.

The word manvantar is made of two words, manu plus antar: antar means time or period or separation, and manvantar means "manu's time." The 14 manu for the current day of Brahma are:
1. Svayambhuva
2. Svarochish
3. Uttam
4. Tamas
5. Raivat
6. Chaakshus
7. Vaivasvat or Shraaddhadev
8. Saavarni
9. Daksha Saavarni
10. Brahmaa Saavarni
11. Dharma Saavarni
12. Rudra Saavarni
13. Deva Saavarni
14. Indra Saavarni


4 yugs

Yug Meaning Approx. life of humans in years
1. Satya-yug 'Age of goodness' where all lived a good/pious life 100,000
2. Tretaa-yug 'Age of three' where bad deeds are appearing (three-fourth are good) 10,000
3. Dvaapar-yug 'Age after the second' or the third age 1,000
4. Kali-yug 'Age of darkness' where there is rampant ignorance 100


4 pralays

1. Nitya-pralay is the regular death of souls and demigods.
2. At the end of Brahma's 12-hour day, called nimit-pralay, all 10 lower loks of a brahmaand (world) are destroyed (i.e. all souls and demigods of a brahmaand that belong to the lower 10 loks enter a dormant state).
3. At the end of Brahma's 100-year life, called praakrut-pralay, all 14 loks of a brahmaand are destroyed (i.e. all souls and demigods of a brahmaand enter a dormant state).
4. Atyaantik-pralay is the destruction of infinite brahmaands (worlds), when all souls and demigods under maya enter a dormant stage.

Mrutyu-lok (the level where humans reside) is comprised of 7 concentric dvips or islands surrounded by oceans. The central dvip, Jambu-dvip, is comprised of 9 khands or lands. Of them, the southernmost khand, Bharat-khand, consists of several deshs or regions. 13 regions are anaarya or common and 12.5 are aarya or auspicious. Humans in these deshs of Bharat-khand of Jambu-dvip of Mrutyu-lok are most fortunate because they have the opportunity to attain liberation due to the constant presence of saints and incarnations of God.

14 loks

There are 14 loks or planes of existence or levels where the souls and demigods of a brahmaand may exist. Lower levels have less merit, less worldly pleasures, etc.

Lok Entities residing in lok
14. Satya Brahma
13. Tapa Rushis (sages)
12. Jana Rushis (sages)
11. Mahar Pitri-devas (ancestral demigods)
10. Svarg Indradev (king of demigods) and devata (demigods)
9. Bhuvar Malin-devas (impure demigods)
8. Mrutyu (or Bhurlok) Humans
7. Atal Daityas (demons)
6. Vital Daityas (demons)
5. Sutal Daityas (demons)
4. Talaatal Nishaachars (nocturnal beings)
3. Mahaatal Nishaachars (nocturnal beings)
2. Rasaatal Nishaachars (nocturnal beings)
1. Paataal Serpents


7 dvips of Mrutyu-lok

There are 7 concentric dvips of varying sizes and surrounded by various types of oceans.

A yojan is the size of 4 gaau, and 1 gaau is about 1 mile (thus 1 yojan is about 4 miles):

Dvip Size in yojan of dvip* Ocean constituent
1. Jambu-dvip (the central dvip) 100,000 Salt-water
2. Plaksh-dvip 200,000 Like ikshu or sugarcane juice
3. Shaalmali-dvip 400,000 Like suraa or alcohol
4. Kush-dvip 800,000 Like ghrut or ghee (melted butter)
5. Kraunch-dvip 1,600,000 Like kshir or milk
6. Shaak-dvip 3,200,000 Like dadhi-mandod or yogurt
7. Pushkar-dvip 6,400,000 Water sweet as sudhaa or amrut (nectar)
* Surrounded by equal yojan in size of ocean

9 khands of Jambu-dvip

Each khand is located relative to the golden Mount Meru in the center, and each khand has a worship and principal devotee.

Khand Location Upaasanaa (worship) Principal devotee
1. Ilavart-khand Surrounding the base of Meru Sankarshan Shiva
2. Ketumal-khand (also called subhag) West of Meru Pradyumna Lakshmi
3. Ramyak-khand North of Meru Matsya Saavarni Manu
4. Hiranyamay-khand North of Ramyak-khand Kurma Aryama
5. Kuru-khand North of Hiranyamay-khand Varah Pruthvi
6. Bhadrashva-khand East of Meru Hayagriv Bhadrashrava
7. Harivarsh-khand South of Meru Nrusinh Prahlad
8. Kimpurush-khand South of Harivarsh-khand Lakshmi-Rama Hanuman
9. Bharat-khand South of Kimpurush-khand Nara-Narayan Narad

Dasavatars - ten Primary visnu incarnations





Dasavatara


Lord Vishnu descends on earth whenever there is a decline in religious practice and a predominant rise of irreligion. In the Vedas, it is said that the Lord, although one without second, manifests himself in innumerable forms. Each and every incarnation has a particular mission, and all these forms and their missions are described in the revealed scriptures. The essence of each mission is to restore people's obedience to religious principles, leading them to God consciousness.
Sometimes Vishnu descends personally, sometimes he sends his bonafide representative in the form of his son or servant, and sometimes he comes himself in a disguised form. The ten major incarnations of Vishnu are collectively known as the Dasavatara.
The Dasavatara incarnations also represent ten different conditions that living beings may generally experience, from the beginning of their bondage up to the end:
      Invertebrate - Matsya
      Testaceous, shelly - Kurma
      Vertebrate - Varaha
      Crectly vertebrate, half man, half beast - Narasimha
      Manikin - Vamana
      Barbaric - Parasurama
      Civilized - Ramacandra
      Wise - Krsna
      Ultra-wise - Buddha
      Destructive - Kalki

Hierarchy of Incarnations


Paying Obeisances to Vishnu

"So all the incarnations of the Lord are mentioned in the revealed scriptures. There is no scope for an imposter to become an incarnation, for an incarnation must be mentioned in the sastras. An incarnation does not declare Himself to be an incarnation of the Lord, but great sages agree by the symptoms mentioned in the revealed scriptures. The features of the incarnation and the particular type of mission which He has to execute are mentioned in the revealed scriptures.
Apart from the direct incarnations, there are innumerable empowered incarnations. They are also mentioned in the revealed scriptures. Such incarnations are directly as well as indirectly empowered. When they are directly empowered they are called incarnations, but when they are indirectly empowered they are called vibhutis. Directly empowered incarnations are the Kumaras, Narada, Prthu, Sesa, Ananta, etc. As far as vibhutis are concerned, they are very explicitly described in the Bhagavad-gita in the Vibhuti-yoga chapter. And for all these different types of incarnations, the fountainhead is the Garbhodakasayi Visnu."
Srimad-bhagavatam 1:3:5 Purport

"The seven great sages and before them the four other great sages and the Manus [progenitors of mankind] are born out of My mind, and all creatures in these planets descend from them."
"The Lord is giving a genealogical synopsis of the universal population. Brahma is the original creature born out of the energy of the Supreme Lord known as Hiranyagarbha. And from Brahma all the seven great sages, and before them four other great sages, namely Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatana and Sanat-kumara, and the Manus, are manifest. All these twenty-five great sages are known as the patriarchs of the living entities all over the universe. There are innumerable universes and innumerable planets within each universe, and each planet is full of population of different varieties. All of them are born of these twenty-five patriarchs. Brahma underwent penance for one thousand years of the demigods before he realized by the grace of Krsna how to create. Then from Brahma Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatana and Sanat-kumara came out, then Rudra, and then the seven sages, and in this way all the brahmanas and ksatriyas are born out of the energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Brahma is known as Pitamaha, the grandfather, and Krsna is known as the Prapitamaha, the father of the grandfather. That is stated in the Eleventh Chapter of the Bhagavad-gita (11.39)."
Bhagavad-gita 10.6, Text and Purport
Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. HDG A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Srila Prabhupada.





While the subject of Lord Krsna's transcendental expansions is inconceivably complex, the following diagram provides a simple view of the hierarchy of incarnations. Single-click on each name below, and a pop-up box will provide more detail.




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Purusa-Avtaras





Maha-Visnu in the Causal Ocean


"The first descent of the Supreme Personality of Godhead ...is the purusa incarnation, Maha-Visnu. It is confirmed in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.1) that when the Supreme Personality of Godhead descends as the first purusa incarnation of the material creation, He immediately manifests sixteen elementary energies. Known as the Maha-Visnu, He lies within the Causal Ocean, and it is He who is the original incarnation in the material world. He is the Lord of time, nature, cause and effect, mind, ego, the five elements, the three modes of nature, the senses and the universal form. Although He is master of all objects movable and immovable in the material world, He is totally independent.

...Innumerable universes are produced from the pores of the Maha-Visnu's body. As innumerable particles of dust pass through the tiny holes in a screen, similarly from the pores of the Maha-Visnu's body innumerable universes emanate. As He breathes out, innumerable universes are produced, and as He inhales, they are annihilated. All of the energies of the Maha-Visnu are spiritual, and they have nothing to do with the material energy...

The second Visnu incarnation, the Garbhodakasayi Visnu, enters each and every universe, spreads water from His body, and lies down on that water. From His navel, the stem of a lotus flower grows, and on that lotus flower the first creature, Brahma, is born. Within the stem of that lotus flower are fourteen divisions of planetary systems, which are created by Brahma. Within each universe the Lord is present as the Garbhodakasayi Visnu, and He maintains each universe and tends to its needs. Although He is within each material universe, the influence of material energy cannot touch Him. When it is required, this very same Visnu takes the form of Lord Siva and annihilates the cosmic creation. The three secondary incarnations--Brahma, Visnu and Siva--are the predominating deities of the three modes of material nature. The master of the universe, however, is the Garbhodakasayi Visnu, who is worshiped as the Hiranyagarbha Supersoul. The Vedic hymns describe Him as having thousands of heads. Although He is within the material nature, He is not touched by it.

The third incarnation of Visnu, Ksirodakasayi Visnu, is also an incarnation of the mode of goodness. He is also the Supersoul of all living entities, and He resides on the ocean of milk within the universe."
Teachings of Lord Caitanya, Chapter 8
Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. HDG A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Srila Prabhupada.

manvantaras


Names of the manvantaras of this day of Brahma upto the present seventh.
(each manvantara is of duration 306,720,000 human years)

1.Svaayambhuva Beginning of Creation
Dhruva Episode
Descent of the Lord as Half-man-half-lion to blessPrahlada
2.Svaarochisha The Episode of King Suratha
3. Uttama
4.Taamasa The Episode of Gajendra, the elephant-devotee
5. Raivata
6. Chaakshusha The churning of the Ocean of milk
             7. Vaivasvata          PRESENT MANVANTARA
                       
There are seven more manvantaras to go in the future


We are in the 7th manvantara .

Each manvantara is divided into 71 maha-yugas.

We are in the 28th maha-yuga of this manvantara

Each maha-yuga is divided into 4 yugas shown below for the current maha-yuga.

We are presently in the kaliyuga
 
of the 28th maha-yuga
 
of the 7th manvantara of Brahma’s day
 
(Duration of every kali-yuga = 432,000 years)

Notation
l: = 432,000





Following is a description of the fourteen Manus who are prominent within the present universe, which has a duration of 4,300,000,000 solar years. Almost all the Manus selected to rule the manvantaras came from the family of Maharaja Priyavrata.


        1. Svayambhuva Manu

        Yajna came as Svayambhuva Manu, the son of Lord Brahma. Krsna incarnated as Varaha during this age. Svayambhuva Manu and his wife Satarupa had two daughters, named Akuti and Devahuti. From their wombs, the Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared as two sons named Yajnamurti and Kapila respectively. These sons were entrusted with preaching about religion and knowledge.

        Manu himself, his sons Priyavrata and Uttanapada, the demigods created by Daksa, and the rsis like Marici were all partial incarnations of the Lord during the reign of Svayambhuva Manu. During that time, the incarnation of the Lord as Yajna took charge of ruling the heavenly planets.

        Svayambhuva Manu performed great austerities by standing on one leg on the bank of the River Sunanda for one hundred years. During this time he was in a trance, chanting the mantras of Vedic instruction known as the Upanisads.

        During the life of Svayambhuva Manu, six kinds of living entities were generated from the demigods known as the Tusitas, the sages headed by Marici, and the descendants of Yajna (king of demigods, Indra). These six kinds of living entities are manus, devas, manu-putras, amsavataras, suresvaras and rsis.


        2. Svarocisa Manu

        Vibhu came as Svarocisa Manu, the son of Svarocih, or Agni. His several sons were headed by Dyumat, Susena and Rocismat. During the reign of Svarocisa, the post of Indra was assumed by Rocana, the son of Yajna. Tusita and others became the principal demigods, and Urja, Stambha and others became the seven saints. All of them were faithful devotees of the Lord. Vedasira was a very celebrated rsi. From the womb of his wife, whose name was Tusita, came the avatara named Vibhu. Vibhu remained a brahmacari and never married throughout his life. From him, eighty-eight thousand other saintly persons took lessons on self-control, austerity and similar behavior.


        3. Uttama Manu

        Satyasena came as Uttama Manu, the son of King Priyavrata. Among the sons of this Manu were Pavana, Srnjaya and Yajnahotra. During the reign of the third Manu, Pramada and other sons of Vasistha became the seven sages. The Satyas, Vedasrutas and Bhadras became demigods, and Satyajit was selected to be Indra, the King of heaven.

        In this manvantara, the Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared from the womb of Sunrta, who was the wife of Dharma, the demigod in charge of religion. The Lord was celebrated as Satyasena, and He appeared with other demigods, known as the Satyavratas.

        Satyasena, along with His friend Satyajit, who was the King of heaven, Indra, killed all the untruthful, impious and misbehaved Yaksas, Raksasas and ghostly living entities, who gave pains to other living beings.


        4. Tamasa Manu

        Hari came as Tamasa Manu, the brother of Uttama. Tamasa had ten sons, headed by Prthu, Khyati, Nara and Ketu. During the reign of Tamasa Manu, among the demigods were the Satyakas, Haris and Viras. The heavenly King, Indra, was Trisikha. The sages in saptarsi-dhama were headed by Jyotirdhama. O King, in the Tamasa manvantara the sons of Vidhrti, who were known as the Vaidhrtis, also became demigods. Since in course of time the Vedic authority was lost, these demigods, by their own powers, protected the Vedic authority.

        Also in this manvantara, the Supreme Lord, Visnu, took birth from the womb of Harini, the wife of Harimedha, and He was known as Hari. Hari saved His devotee Gajendra, the King of the elephants, from the mouth of a crocodile.


        5. Raivata Manu

        Vaikuntha came as as Raivata Manu, the twin brother of Tamasa. His sons were headed by Arjuna, Bali and Vindhya. O King, in the millennium of Raivata Manu the King of heaven was known as Vibhu, among the demigods were the Bhutarayas, and among the seven brahmanas who occupied the seven planets were Hiranyaroma, Vedasira and Urdhvabahu. From the combination of Subhra and his wife, Vikuntha, there appeared the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vaikuntha, along with demigods who were His personal plenary expansions. Just to please the goddess of fortune, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vaikuntha, at her request, created another Vaikuntha planet, which is worshiped by everyone. This Vaikuntha is within the universe. It is situated above the mountain known as Lokaloka. This planet is worshiped by everyone.

        After the Lord's personal bodyguards Jaya and Vijaya became Daityas, having been cursed by the great sages Sanaka, Sanatana, Sanat-kumara and Sanandana, Jaya, as Hiranyaksa, had to fight with Varahadeva. That same Varahadeva is mentioned in regard to the Raivata millennium. The fighting, however, took place during the reign of the first Manu, Svayambhuva. Therefore according to some authorities there are two Varahas. According to others, however, Varaha appeared during the regime of Svayambhuva Manu and stayed in the water until that of Raivata Manu. Some may doubt that this could be possible, but the answer is that everything is possible. If one could count the atoms within the universe, one could count the qualities of Lord Visnu. But the atoms of the universe are impossible for anyone to count, and similarly no one can count the transcendental qualities of the Lord.


        6. Caksusa Manu

        Ajita came as Caksusa Manu, the son of the demigod Caksu. He had many sons, headed by Puru, Purusa and Sudyumna. During the reign of Caksusa Manu, the King of heaven was known as Mantradruma. Among the demigods were the Apyas, and among the great sages were Havisman and Viraka. In this sixth manvantara millennium, Lord Visnu, the master of the universe, appeared in His partial expansion. He was begotten by Vairaja in the womb of his wife, Devasambhuti, and His name was Ajita. By churning the ocean of milk, Ajita produced nectar for the demigods. In the form of a tortoise, He moved here and there, carrying on His back the great mountain known as Mandara.


        7. Vaivasvata Manu (the current Manu)

        Vamana came as Vaivasvata Manu, the son of Vivasvan, the sun-god (whose name is also mentioned in Bhagavad-gita.) The present Manu, Vaivasvata, has already lived for 4,320,000 years multiplied by 28, or 120,960,000 years. In other words, we are in the twenty-eighth millennium of Vaivasvata Manu.

        The seventh Manu, who is the son of Vivasvan, is known as Sraddhadeva. He has ten sons, named Iksvaku, Nabhaga, Dhrsta, Saryati, Narisyanta, Nabhaga, Dista, Tarusa, Prsadhra and Vasuman. In this manvantara, or reign of Manu, among the demigods are the Adityas, Vasus, Rudras, Visvedevas, Maruts, Asvini-kumaras and Rbhus. The king of heaven, Indra, is known as Purandara, and the seven sages are known as Kasyapa, Atri, Vasistha, Visvamitra, Gautama, Jamadagni and Bharadvaja. During this period of Manu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Visnu appears from the womb of Aditi in His incarnation as the son of Kasyapa.


        8. Savarni Manu

        Sarvabhauma comes as Savarni Manu, a son born to the sun-god and wife named Chaya. Savarni's sons are headed by Nirmoka, and among the demigods are the Sutapas. Bali, the son of Virocana, is Indra, and Galava and Parasurama are among the seven sages. In this age of Manu, the incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead appears as Sarvabhauma, the son of Devaguhya and Sarasvati.


        9. Daksa-savarni Manu

        Rsabha comes as Daksa-savarni Manu, the son of the demigod Varuna. Daksa-savarni's sons are headed by Bhutaketu, and among the demigods are the Maricigarbhas. Adbhuta is Indra, and among the seven sages is Dyutiman. In this period of Manu, the incarnation Rsabha is born of Ayusman and Ambudhara.


        10. Brahma-savarni Manu

        Visvaksena comes as Brahma-savarni Manu, the son of Upasloka. Among Brahma-savarni's sons is Bhurisena, and the seven sages are Havisman and others. Among the demigods are the Suvasanas, and Sambhu is Indra. The incarnation in this period of Manu is Visvaksena, who is a friend of Sambhu and who is born from the womb of Visuci in the house of a brahmana named Visvasrasta.


        11. Daksa-savarni Manu

        Dharmasetu comes as Dharma-savarni Manu, the son of Ruci. Dharma-savarni has ten sons, headed by Satyadharma. Among the demigods are the Vihangamas, Indra is known as Vaidhrta, and the seven sages are Aruna and others. In this manvantara, the incarnation is Dharmasetu, who is born of Vaidhrta and Aryaka.


        12. Rudra-savarni Manu

        Sudhama comes as Rudra-savarni Manu, the son of Rudra. Rudra-savarni's sons are headed by Devavan. The demigods are the Haritas and others, Indra is Rtadhama, and the seven sages are Tapomurti and others. The incarnation in this manvantara is Sudhama, or Svadhama, who is born from the womb of Sunrta. His father's name is Satyasaha.


        13. Deva-savarni Manu

        Yogesvara comes as Deva-savarni Manu, the son of Satyasaha. Among Deva-savarni's sons is Citrasena, the demigods are the Sukarmas and others, Indra is Divaspati, and Nirmoka is among the sages. The manvantara-avatara is Yogesvara, who is born of Devahotra and Brhati.


        14. Indra-savarni Manu

        Brhadbhanu comes as Indra-savarni Manu, the son of Bhuti. Among Indra-savarni's sons are Uru and Gambhira, the demigods are the Pavitras and others, Indra is Suci, and among the sages are Agni and Bahu. The incarnation of this manvantara is known as Brhadbhanu. He is born of Satrayana from the womb of Vitana.

Monday, 11 November 2013

Kunjal Kriya

Kunjal Kriya
Dr. Swami Shankardevananda Saraswati






The digestive system can help us enjoy life if we look after it properly, and one of the ways to do this is through kunjal kriya. As we have already discussed, the digestive system in man is the key to better health for the majority of people. Through this doorway, the whole body with all its systems can be returned to its normal state of good health. Though this cleansing technique is directly concerned with the digestive system, its effects and repercussions will be felt throughout the entire body.

Kunjal is one of the most effective yogic techniques. It is dramatic and instantaneous in its action. It can give immediate relief to asthmatics and to those suffering from acidity, indigestion, headache, etc. You only need to try it for yourself to find out how effective it is.
The process

Kunjal is performed by drinking tepid, salty water up to the point where you feel like vomiting. The water should be lukewarm, and contain about one or two teaspoons of salt for half a litre of water. At least six glasses of water should be drunk, but if you can, drink more -up to the point where you cannot take even one more sip. At this point you may vomit automatically, if not then put two fingers down your throat and massage the back of your tongue as far down as possible. By pressing it you will feel the urge to vomit, which is called the 'gag reflex' in medical terminology. Water will come out of your mouth in a quick series of gushes. Continue pressing until your stomach is empty.

This practice should be done first thing in the morning on an empty stomach. It is also done after shankhaprakshalana. Follow kunjal with neti.

After completion of the practice it is best to wait twenty minutes or half an hour before eating. The stomach lining should have a chance to reform before the process of digestion starts pouring acids onto its sensitive surface.

Note: Those who suffer from any chronic disabling disease, an active stomach ulcer, hernia of the stomach or abdomen, high blood pressure, heart disease or oesophageal varices, should only practice kunjal under the guidance of a qualified yoga teacher or ashram.
Kunjal and vomiting

Kunjal has none of the unpleasant sensations usually associated with vomiting, like nausea and bad smell. The water brought up is usually clean and without smell. The added salt removes the acid by naturalizing it, which removes the burning feeling. The water contains nothing solid, thus it comes out quickly and easily. After the first few times, kunjal becomes a pleasure.

To many people kunjal seems strange and alien at first. This mental attitude is the biggest barrier to performing kunjal. But it can be overcome by realizing that to vomit without the accompanying bad feelings of sickness can be a pleasure. When you have practised kunjal and start to experience the results, then you can judge, but not before. As you become more and more healthy through this practice, your body will desire kunjal in the morning. We have seen many people who will not let one day go by without doing kunjal, as they fee] 'dirty' inside and miss the benefits of this marvelous technique. For them the practice has become as quick and easy as cleaning the teeth each morning.
Direct effects

At the physical level kunjal can aid the maintenance of good health as well as help in the cure of the following diseases: acidity and gas in the stomach; biliousness, nausea, food poisoning and auto-poisoning; indigestion; inflamed oesophageal mucosa, coughs, asthma, bronchitis and respiratory ailments; headaches, (both tension and migraine) and diseases of the nervous system.

At the pranic level, kunjal gives the whole body a flushing, untying knots and unblocking nadis (psychic nerves which conduct prana) so that the whole body feels revived and alive.

On the mental level, kunjal can help with many types of mental diseases and problems, acting as a kind of shock therapy to recharge the brain and mind. It especially helps with depression, lethargy, apathy, tensions, anxiety, neuroses and phobias.
Indirect effects

The indirect effects of kunjal are that it tones up and helps to rebalance the nervous system, thus helping to rejuvenate the whole body. The energy released by the pranic flush helps tone up the circulatory system, the respiratory system, the urino-genital system and the musculoskeletal system. This is because each system of the body depends upon every other system for its correct balance and smooth functioning. When one system, in this case the digestive system, starts to overflow with energy, this energy spills into the other body compartments and gives them a recharge. The mind and body function as one unit; there is no separating line between them. So when the body is recharged, the mind is also recharged. This explains how mental diseases can be cured through physical techniques. This principle can be applied to all yogic techniques and methods which bring positive energy into our lives.
Physical effects

When we do kunjal, what happens? We stimulate the sensory channels of our nervous system, which sends it signal to the brain. This in turn sends a signal down the motor system to make the body vomit: the diaphragm, stomach and glottis contract, causing the water to move in the reverse direction.

There are three processes of the body which totally paralyse the brain and mind for one moment, leaving you in a 'selfless' state, reminiscent of states of meditation. These are orgasm, sneezing and vomiting. If you think about it and reflect upon your own experiences, you will remember that at the moment of experiencing one of these three states, you felt a wave of energy rush through your body and mind which momentarily stopped all thought and action.

When the brain feels this rush of energy it is in a state of extreme stimulation. Many of its circuits are temporarily cut, leaving only the few most necessary circuits in action. This situation is analogous, but much more gentle, subtle and effective than ECT (electric shock therapy) as used in hospitals for the treatment of depressed patients. Energy floods into every nerve of the brain, but in the case of kunjal, not ECT, it is pranic energy which floods through, giving life and rejuvenating every cell. Then when the energy subsides, these circuits start up again in a more harmonious fashion.

The brain then pours out this energy to the rest of the body via the nerves. This extra energy cleans and purifies by stimulating the cells of the waste-disposal system, and then travels on to the organs of the body. As a result there is a direct increase in body efficiency.

The autonomic nervous system is especially important to our understanding of how physical disease is reduced. It is divided into two parts: the parasympathetic system, concerned with relaxed states of mind, and the sympathetic system, concerned with stress and active times. These two systems constantly balance each other.

For example, when we get into a tense situation or state of mind, the sympathetic system becomes predominant, bringing the adrenals into action. Of course, the parasympathetic system still functions as an undertone, maintaining just enough relaxation in the physical body (reflected down from the mind) so that there is no extreme, and the body can function at its peak.

When you do kunjal, the action of the energy flush moving from the stomach on the physical level, and manipura chakra on the psychic level, stimulates the vagus nerve both in its sensory and motor functions. The vagus is sensory to the heart, lungs, bronchi, trachea, pharynx and digestive tract; and motor to the heart, lungs, bronchi and digestive tract. It feeds directly into the hypothalamus of the brain via its parasympathetic fibres. The hypothalamus controls the whole autonomic nervous system. The vagus is responsible for the gag reflex and vomiting.

The extra energy from kunjal spills into both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, but as the mind is prepared for vomiting, a stressful situation, the sympathetic predominates. The following results occur: Digestive system : decreased peristalsis and increased glucose into the blood from the liver. Lungs: dilation of the bronchi; stops acute asthma. Salivary glands start secreting and therefore are flushed out and cleaned.

Heart beats faster and the blood vessels dilate giving more oxygen to the heart muscle. The lungs are exercised by the action of the diaphragm and abdomen, which helps breathing and pranayama. Mucus secretions from the mouth, sinuses and lower respiratory tract are stimulated, rinsing out these areas. There is temporary blood rush to the brain which increases oxygen and performance.
Pranic effects

The stomach and digestion are governed by manipura chakra, the psychic centre in which prana, the life-giving force of man, is stored. This force has been called bioplasma by the scientists investigating Kirlian photography and parapsychology, and is a proven and documented entity.

It is in the psychic and more subtle bodies that many effects are in progress, but we are unaware of them. Kunjal helps to liberate prana which energises the body. In fact, prana is the basis for all the body energies and thus is vital to our well-being.

When the prana flows, so does the energy in the nerves. In this way every cell in the body and mind becomes energized by prana. We feel alive and happier. We experience a sort of catharsis after doing kunjal, a cleansed, purified and relaxed feeling, which also invigorates us. Prana, this golden life-giving substance, is the cause and kunjal, along with many other yogic techniques, is a means to liberate and control it.
The gag reflex

The gag reflex that initiates vomiting is in itself a powerful and valuable tool. Even if you haven't time to do kunjal every morning, then you can use the gag reflex to awaken prana easily and simply.

This can be done when you brush your teeth in the morning. Use your first two fingers to clean your tongue by rubbing it backwards and forwards. When you come to the back of your tongue, do not be frightened, but rather continue to massage it even though you may feel you are going to vomit. If something comes up, this is good as it means there was obviously something undigested in the stomach which needed to come out.

The benefits of the gag reflex are many. To quote the actor, Orson Bean, in. his book Me and the Orgone:

    "I'd wake up in the morning and gag myself in the bathroom. Baker had told me that 'eliciting the gag reflex' (sticking your fingers down your throat) relieved anxiety, and was something I could do with beneficial results every a.m. for the rest of my life. It does work, strange as it sounds ..."

Mental effects

The stomach is extremely responsive to emotional changes and, like the face, can blanch or blush with blood. It is a mirror of the mind. Depression produces anorexia, or loss of appetite accompanied by a heavy sinking feeling in the pit of the stomach, which actually drops an inch or so as the supporting muscles and ligaments let go. Constant worry can create copious gas in the stomach which results in distension and pressure on the heart. This may mimic heart disease.

Stomach ulcers are the end result of a long period of emotional or mental tension, combined with a genetic predisposition to the constant over secretion of gastric juices, which eventually break down the lining of the stomach and start to eat into you, auto-digestion. This is a case of 'what's eating you' on a mental level. Kunjal is one of the yogic techniques that removes the mental roots of many diseases: hate, jealousy, fear and insecurity. The release of nervous tension after kunjal is what does it. But the effect is not instantaneous, rather it takes a slow and steady course.

Alexander Lowen, an American M.D., writing in his book Pleasure states:

    "The value of this procedure is illustrated in the following case. I saw a young man in consultation who had a tight rigid body. His jaw was tense, his breathing was restricted, his complexion sallow, and his breath smelled sour. After working with his breathing for some time, I had him drink some water and throw up. The immediate effect was a sense of release and easier breathing. On my recommendation he did this every morning for about a month. When I saw him again, the sour smell was gone, his complexion had improved and his body was looser. One result of this procedure is the elimination of chronic heartburn, from which so many people suffer. In most cases the release of tensions by this manoeuvre restores the pleasure to the basic activities of eating and digestion and facilitates a deeper respiration."

Another interesting point is that the American Indians always practised a psychic cleaning before religious rites by drinking a strong emetic and vomiting.
How to practice

This technique is designed to be used in conjunction with other techniques so that awareness can be unfolded in a controlled series of steps.

Here is a guide for the integration of kunjal into your daily spiritual practices:

    On rising in the morning fulfil your ablutions and then do kunjal. Follow this with neti.

    Rest for a few minutes and go within. Become aware of the results of kunjal and neti.

    Do your asanas and pranayama. You will find it easier and more powerful to practice in the early morning as kunjal wakes you up by increasing the flow of prana throughout your body and mind. Meditation is also enhanced.

Use a similar routine every morning and results will quickly follow in terms of physical, emotional, mental and spiritual health, happiness and peace. Note: We advise you to study the article 'The Digestive System' so as to better understand the process of internal cleaning.

BHAGAVAD GITA


Karmanye Vaadhika-raste,
Maa Phaleshu Kadachana;



Maa karma-phala-hetur-bhoorma,
MaTe sangostwakarmini.
कर्मणये वाधिकारस्ते मां फलेषु कदाचन । मां कर्मफलहेतुर्भू: मांते संङगोस्त्वकर्मणि ।।
Bhagavad Gita, Chapter II, Verse 47.
Summary of the Bhagavad Gita

Your right is to work only,
But never to its fruits;
Let not the fruits of action be thy motive,
Nor let thy attachment be to inaction.



This famous verse contains the essential principle of disinterestedness or detachment. It cautions us that our natural tendency while doing our work is to be deflected from disinterestedness - particularly if we think of fame or fortune along the way. The will of God is supreme, and the fulfillment of that will is all that matters. Success or failure does not depend on the individual, but on other factors as well.

We must work with a perfect serenity - steadfast in inner composure (yogasthah) - indifferent to the results. He who acts by virtue of an inner law is on a higher level than one whose action is dictated by his whims and emotions. It is the true inner poise (samatvam) and self-mastery. It is the true conquest of anger, sensitiveness, pride and ambition. It is the true yoga. Those who purse this wisdom go the region of the Gods.

Friday, 8 November 2013

Cosmic Time

 

 

Hindu New Year and Cosmic Time


Harey Namaha,

Wish you a very Happy Sri Vijaya Nama Samvatsara Yugadi. In this festival I am eager to share some information about the our Hindu System of Time. 
In this modern time most of the people following English Calendar than Hindu Panchaga. When any festival or any auspicious event to perform one will refer Panchanga or contacts a vedic Astrologer. Modern Students are celebrating English New Year than Yugadi. Our Hindu System of Calendar created by Lord Vishnu. By the grace of God I am happy to share few lines about our ancient System of Time.

The Supreme Maha Vishnu – the omnipresent, Omnipotent, Omniscient, creator, protector, destroyer, giver of knowledge, ignorance, bondage and liberation creates Chaturmukha Brahma from his Navel. He then creates the universe manifesting Himself in the four-faced Brahma. The life of a universe is linked to the life span of the Chaturmukha Brahma.
The life span of Brahma is 100 cosmic years (Caturmukha brahmaNaH paramAyurvarShashataM). This quantum is denoted as Para.

1 cosmic year = 360 cosmic days.
1 cosmic day = 28 Manvantaras (14 Manvantaras = day, 14 manvantaras = night).
1 Manvantara = 71 Mahayuga.
1 Mahayuga = 4 Yugas (43 lakh 20 thousand human years)
4 yugas = Krita, Treta, Dvapara, Kali.
Krita Yuga = 17 lakh 28 Thousand human years 17,28,000.
Treta yuga = 12 lakh 96 Thousand human years = 12,96,000.
Dvapara yuga = 8 lakh 64 thousand human years = 8,64,000.
Kaliyuga = 4 lakh 32 thousand human years = 4,32,000

Out of the 100 years of Brahma time 50 years have already elapsed. We are now in
the 51st year of Brahma, first month, first day (kalpa by name Shvetavarahakalpa). In
the day time 13 ghatikas 42 pala have elapsed During this day time of Brahma out of 14 Manvantaras 6 Manvantaras viz., Svayambhuva,Svarochisha,Uttama, Tapasa, Raivata,Chakshusha have elapsed. The 7th Manvantara by the name Vaivasvata manvantara is currently running.


In Vaivasvata manvantara out of 71 Mahayugas, 27 Mahayugas have elapsed. We are currently in the 28th Mahayuga. There too, Krita, Treta, Dvapara Yugas have elapsed and Kaliyuga is in progress.

Krita Yuga : This is the first yuga among the 4 yuga cycle which constitute 1 Maha Yuga. The four legs of the Dharma = Satya, Daya, Tapas and Dana are fully intact in the Krita Yuga. The following are the chief characterstics of this Krita Yuga: Krita yuga duration: 17 lakh 28 thousand human years (17,28,000).

Dharma: Dharma is fully practiced (4 out of 4 parts)
Prana : Asthigata.
Height : 28 hastas.
Life span of humans : 1 lakh years.
Crops : 7 times a year.
Utensils : Made of gold.
Currency: Pearls.
Punya : 20 parts.
Papa : 0. People always speak truth.
Treta Yuga : Treta Yuga is the second among the 4 Yugas which constitute one Maha Yuga. The chief characteristics of this Yuga are as follows
Duration of Treta yuga: 12 lakh 96 Thousand human years (12,96,000).
Dharma: Dharma practiced 3 out of 4 parts.
Prana : Mamsagata.
Height : 14 hastas.
Life span of humans : 10 thousand years.
Crops : 5 times a year.
Utensils : Made of silver.
Currency: Gold.
Punya : 15 parts.



Papa : 5







Dvapara Yuga: Dvapara Yuga is the third among the 4 Yugas which constitute one Maha Yuga. This yuga occupies a significant position in the 4 Yuga cycle as this is the last Yuga in which Bhagavan Vishnu incarnates (that is why he is called Krishnavatara, Vedavyasa Avatara belong to this yuga only. The famous story of Mahabharata also happened during this age.

Dvapara yuga: 8 lakh 64 thousand human years = 8,64,000
Dharma: Dharma practiced 2 out of 4 parts
Pranaa: Raktagata
Height: 7 hastas
Life span of humans: 1 thousand years
Crops : 3 times a year
Utensils : Made of copper
Currency: silver
Punya : 10 parts
Papa : 10 parts




Kali Yuga : Kali Yuga is the last of the 4 Yugas which constitute one Maha Yuga. This Yuga is also identified by the name Dark Age.The name Kali stems from the fact that in this Yuga happiness will be subdued.
Duration of kali yuga: 4 lakh 32 thousand human years = 4,32,000
Dharma : Dharma practiced 1 out of 4 parts
Prana : annagata (People survive on food and die if food is not partaken)
Height : 3.5 hastas
Life span of humans : 120 years
Crops : 2 times a year
Utensils : Made of mud, iron
Currency: copper
Punya : 5 parts
Papa : 15 parts

Elapsed Kali Yuga years : 5115
Remaining Kali Yuga years : 4,26,885
In this Kali Yuga there are 6 Shaka Kartas
1. Yudhishtira Shaka – 3044 Years
2. Vikrama Shaka – 135 Years
3. Shalivahana Shaka – 18,000 Years,Current Shaka elapsed – 1935. Remaining 16,065.
4. Vijayabhinandana Shaka – 10,000 years
5. Nagarjuna Shaka – 4,00,000 years 6. Kalki Bhoopa Shaka – 821 years.


This post is originally taken from
VAISWANARA
Vedic Astrology Scholar
Vaiswanara Vedic Astrology Training & Research,
Mantralayam, Kurnool (District),
Andhra Pradesh. I N D I A – 518345


Division of Time in ancient Indian time


Division of Time in ancient Indian time -


1 Thithi = 60 Ghatigalu
1 Ghatika (Ghati) = 60 Palagalu (Vighati)
1 Pala (Vighati) = 60 Vipala
1 Vipala = 60 Prativipala


Conversion -

1 Prativipala = 0.006 seconds
1 Vipala = 0.4 seconds
1 Vighati = 24 seconds
1 Ghati = 24 minutes

Also, 1 Muhoorta = 2 Ghatis = 48 mins
Also, 1 Thithi = 2 Karanas
Pradosha kala = 4 Ghatis before and after sunrise
= 40 mins before and 48 mins after sunrise.

1 Mahayuga = 10 Yugas
= Krutayuga (4 Yuga in length)
+ Tretayuga (3 Yuga)
+ Dwaparayuga (2 Yuga)
+ Kaliyuga (1 Yuga)
= 4320000 years
1 Yuga = 432000 years
1 Manvantara = 71 Mahayugagalu = 30,67,20,000 years
1 Brahma dina = 14 Mavantara (994 Mahayugagalu)
= 4,29,40,80,000 years

Vedas also say that before and after each Manvantara there is a gap equivalent to 4 Yugas apart from the Mahayuga.

So 1 Brahma dina = 14 Manvantaras + (15 x 4 Yugas)

= 994 Mahayuga + 60 Yugas
= 994 Mahayuga + 6 Mahayuga
= 1000 Mahayugas
= 4,32,00,00,000 years

Same with 1 Brahma Rathri - 1000 Mahayugas

1 Brahma poorna dina = 2000 Mahayugas
= 8,64,00,00,000 years
= 864 koti varshagalu.

1 Kalpa = 1 Brahma Poorna Dina
1 Brahma varsha = 360 Kalpa (Brahmadinagalu)

Our Universe exists for 100 Brahma varsha galu.
By the way, Universe translates to Uni-verse = OM.

Currently,
Our Brahma is 51 years old and 7th Manvantara of this Brahma dina.

If this is 7th Manvantara of current Brahma dina, we have 6 already passed.

That is, 426 Mahayugas have passed. And between 7 manvantaras, as mentioned abouve, we have 4 yuga gap between each of them. That accounts to 7 x 4 = 28 yugas or 2.8 Mahayugas.

In all, 428.8 mahayugas have passed till date for the current Brahma dina.
Also, we are now in 28th Manvantara (Vaivasvata Manvantara).
And kaliyuge prathama pade = 1/10th part to be added = 27.9 Mahayugas.

So in all, we can say it is 456.7 Mahayugas have passed.

That is 456.7 x 4320000 = 1,97,29,44,456 years have passed since the creation of current universe = Approximately 2 billion years (matches what science offers as the Universe's age).

The concept of Ages in Hinduism

The concept of Ages in Hinduism

The computation of age is based on the life of Lord Brahma. Brahma lives hundred years, but they are years of Brahma, not human years. One Kalpa coincides with one Day of Brahma's life, and when the night will come, this Universe will be reabsorbed (Pralaya) in his divine sleep.
One Kalpa (Day or Night of Brahma) corresponds to 4,320,000,000 human years.

Indeed earthly time is marked in Yuga or Ages, which are:
Krita (or Satya)-Yuga 4,800 years *
Treta-Yuga 3,600 years *
Dwapara-Yuga 2,400 years *
Kali-Yuga 1,200 years *
Total 12,000 years *
* The years correspond to that of Mahayuga


Each Yuga's length decrease progressively in relation to moral and physical decadence in each age, Throughtout the Satya Yuga virtue prevails and evil is unknown; in the Treta Yuga virtue falls by a fourth; in the Dwapara Yuga virtue has diminished by half; in the Kali Yuga, the current age, but a fourth of virtue remains.
The four Yuga make one Mahayuga or Caturyuga.The Mahayuga's 12,000 years must be multiplied by 360, the days of the human year.

12,000 x 360 = 4,320,000 years
Every Kalpa has 1000 cycles of the four Yuga.
4,320,000 x 1,000 = 4,320,000,000 years
Each Kalpa is divided into 14 Manvatara or periods, each lasting for 71 circles of the four yuga (Mahayuga).
4,320,000 x 71 x 14 = 4,294,080,000 years     
The last six periods, necessary to have 1000 Mahayuga, are variously divided among the different Manvatara.
At the end of this Yuga, Lord Shiva shall destroy the whole universe - this is known as the night of Brahma.



The four yugas and the Kali yuga
Satya Yuga       17,28,000 years 
Treta Yuga         12,96,000 years
Dwapar Yuga      8,64,000 years
Kali Yuga              4,32,000 years

The Kali yuga
When it started
At the end of the Dwapar Yuga, when Lord Shri Krishna renounced the world,  the Kali Yuga started. When king Yudhishtir realized the advent of the Kali Yuga that is chaos, greed, violence, debauchery and lies, he expressed a desire to go to the forest and do penance. Accordingly, he abdicated the throne and coronated his grandson Parikshit as the king.
Merits
During the Satya Yuga if any one inadvertently committed a wrong deed the entire kingdom had to bear the punishment. During Treta, if any one committed a wrong deed, the people of that town had to bear the punishment. During Dwapar Yuga, if anyone happened to commit a wrong deed, the entire family had to bear the punishment, but in Kali Yuga, he shall only bear the punishment who has committed the wrong deed. I am not concerned about anyone else."

Unlike the other eras where one had to inevitably bear the punishment for a wrong and bad thoughts, In my era, this shall cease to happen but one shall be bestowed with good fruits who thinks good."
One could fulfill all ones wishes and desires in the Satya Yuga only after practicing penance for 10,000 years. Similarly in the Treta Yuga and the Dwapar Yuga, one had to collect a lot of money and perform Yagyas and had to engage in charity, penance, vows and worship for a 100 years respectively to fulfil ones desires. Unlike the others, in this era, if one even prays to God for sometime with total faith and devotions and sings the praises of the Lord, he shall fulfill all his desires within no time. He shall be liberated from all his sins and shall consequently attain salvation.
Where does kali stay

The influence of  Kali Yuga is in four places where he could stay, 
wine, where a prostitute stays, where there is animal slaughter and where gambling would be allowed. Those people who yearn for higher ideals should not even go near these five things.

In the Kali Yuga, by seeking the blessings of Lord Jagannath Puri, one shall attain salvation.
Curses
In the Kali Yuga, there is no average life expectancy of humans. Even a child in the womb can die inspite of his mother and father living..

Humans taking birth in this era will usually be radiant, bad tempered, greedy and untruthful. The personality will be plagued by flaws such as jealousy, ego, anger, pleasure, instinct, desires and greed.There shall be only one pillar of religion in the Kali Yuga. Here the idol of Bhagwan Vishnu has assumed a black colour because of the inherent chaos and delusion. Vedic conduct, religion, Yagya and Karma all cease to exist.

All types of problems such as ailments, lethargy, anger, mental diseases and hunger, thirst tend to aggravate. Gradually even happiness and comforts of humans become decadent and morbid. In this era Brahmins do the work of a Shudra and the Shudras alike the Vaishyas amass wealth or alike Kshatriyas engage in allied activities and earn their livelihood.

In Kali Yuga, Brahmins shall renounce self-study, contemplation and shall eat every thing that is prohibited. They will no more be inclined towards penance and on the contrary Shudras shall take interest in recitation of Vedic chants.

In this way when hypocrisy reaches the zenith, it initiates the final annihilation. Many a king of the inferior category shall reign the earth who shall be sinners, unfaithful and wicked. Kings of places such as Andhra, Shaka, Pulunda, Yavan, Kamboj, Bahrhik and other wealthy Aamir shall become kings. No Brahmin in this age shall earn his daily bread and butter honestly.
Kshatriyas and Vaishyas shall engage in all duties other than those, which are coveted. All shall become less valiant, they shall be short lived, will lack energy and strength. Humans shall be short in height and shall seldom speak the truth. All the directions will have snakes and animals. Some people shall meaninglessly talk of Brahma Jnana. Shudras shall criticize the Brahmins while the Brahmins shall praise and eulogize the Shudras.

Many a creatures, insects etc. shall take birth in Kali Yuga. All things that ought to have fragrance shall not be that fragrant, and food shall relatively become tasteless. Women shall be short and have many children. Women in this era shall be immoral and licentious by nature. Most people shall be traders of food while Brahmins shall sell the Vedas. Most of the women shall engage in prostitution. In the Kali Yuga, there will be very less milk in the udders of the cow. Seldom will there be fruits and flowers on trees. There will be excessive number of crows in comparison to other birds. Brahmins will engage in killing and shall take donation from kings inspite of lying. Brahmins as a whole shall be imposters and feign to be very pious and pure. They will harass the common people for alms etc.

Householders shall indulge in robbery because they will be unable to pay up their taxes. They shall disguise in the form of sages, ascetics and earn their livelihood. Even people who are celibates shall give up their purity and engage in intoxication and shall have illicit sex. People will engage in all those material activities that ushers physical energy only. All Ashrams shall be a haven of all imposters and they shall be totally dependent on food from others. During this time, seldom shall it rain and even the yield, production of grain will not be satisfactory. People will be aggressive by nature and consequently unholy and impure. The ones indulging in irreligious and blasphemous acts shall emerge powerful and prosperous. Those who are righteous shall be in penury.

Just by amassing a little amount of wealth one shall become proud and they despite having wealth shall have an eye on others wealth and property. In Kali Yuga, girls, 8-10 years old shall become pregnant while boys of the age of 10-12 years shall have children. On the sixteenth year itself the hair will turn white. Youth shall become alike old men and old men shall become energetic and youthful. Women will engage in sex with inferior men, servants and animals inspite of having a good husband.
Religion, truth, thoughts, pity, age, energy, memory all shall get gradually emaciated and drained. People will love only their own children and family and will not hesitate to deceive their own friends, benefactors.Judges of events shall favor the wealthy and the impoverished shall be denied justice. One who constantly blabbers shall be called a saint and one who is in a miserable state will be called an imposter.

Any lake or reservoir situated far away will be referred as a holy shrine. Growing hair will be an indication of beauty. People will take interest in religious actions so as to become prosperous and successful. He who subdues the others shall be self-proclaimed king. Subjects to protect their families shall seek refuge in caves and caverns and will lead a miserable life.

People will be plagued with all types of extreme climatic conditions. Average life expectancy of a human being in Kali Yuga will be approximately 20 to 30 years only.As the delusion will aggravate people will become weak and devoid of radiance, medicines and food will plummet and all the four stages (Varnashrams) will be represented by Grihastashram (householder’s duty). By the end of the Kali Yuga, The God shall reincarnate to protect religion and to destroy all evil. Lord Vishnu shall incarnate and shall give refuge to all that are good and righteous.
When Sun, Moon and Jupiter together enter the Pushya Nakshatra and cancer zodiac at that time by the inspiration of time, a divine and strong child named Vishuyasha Kalki shall take birth in a Brahmin family in a village known as Sambhal.

He shall be the saviour of one and all and he will possess weapon on the spur of the moment. He shall emancipate this world from all miseries and create happiness. He will put an end to the Kali Yuga and shall create a novel Satya Yuga embellished with truth and beauty. Bhagwan Kalki shall recoronate all the Brahmins as the rulers and will massacre all the outcastes and inferior (barbarians)

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